By Dianna Sinovic, Pure Matters
Not everyone's nutrition needs are identical. As we age, our bodies and metabolism change. Although older adults still need plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and fiber, they need to add or subtract a few things from the diet they followed earlier in life.
Many older adults have a decreased sense of taste and decreased absorption. They need to make sure they get enough water and nutrients, even if they must take supplements to get them.
Although we all should drink eight glasses of water a day, it's critical for older adults to factor in water because they have decreased kidney function and may not feel thirsty.
Adequate water intake helps avoid constipation. Older adults' digestive tracts don't work as effectively as they once did, making constipation more likely, and many older adults have dental problems that keep them from eating as much fiber as they need. Fiber also helps prevent constipation.
Another possible addition to an older adult's diet is a vitamin and mineral supplement. Older adults often don't get enough calcium or vitamin D in their diet, and a lack of either of those can lead to bone loss and osteoporosis. Vitamin B12 is another nutrient that's often found lacking in older adults. As the body ages, it becomes less able to absorb B12 from foods. B12 is critical for healthy nerve and red blood cells. Vitamin B12 supplements may be taken as a pill, an injection, or a gel applied to the inside of the nose.
You should discuss the issue of supplements with your health care provider. Older adults already purchase more supplements than other age groups. Unfortunately, false advertising leads them to believe that supplements will stop or curb the aging process.
Recent research indicates that many problems associated with the aging process can be slowed with a good diet. So the benefits associated with consuming a balanced, nutrient-rich diet are endless.
Other aspects of older nutrition
One good way to find out what you need in daily nutrition is to visit the U.S. Department of Agriculture's website My Pyramid. The site asks for your age, gender, and level of physical activity to determine your daily caloric needs.
My Pyramid, based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA, encourages people to eat a suggested amount from five major food groups each day. If you can't do that, at least try to eat something from each group each day. Choose lower-fat foods and include vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
These are suggested amounts from the Dietary Guidelines:
- Grains: 5 to 10 ounces. One ounce equals one roll, a slice of bread, or a small muffin; a half cup cooked rice or pasta; or about a cup of ready-to-eat cereal.
- Vegetables: 2 to 3.5 cups; include a variety of colors and types.
- Fruit: 1.5 to 2.5 cups.
- Milk, yogurt,or cheese: 3 cups of milk. One cup of milk equals one cup of yogurt, 1.5 to 2 ounces of cheese, or a half cup of cottage cheese.
- Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts: 5 to 7 ounces. Equivalent one-ounce servings of lean meat, poultry, or fish are a quarter cup of cooked beans or tofu; 1 egg; half-ounce of nuts or seeds; or 1 tablespoon of peanut butter.
Other tips for good nutrition:
- Eat only small amounts of fats, oils, and sweets.
- Include at least 3 ounces of whole grains in your daily grains allotment.
- Keep in mind that manufacturers put more than one serving in a package or bottle.
Fruits and vegetables are a real plus for seniors, because they are lower in calories than other foods, yet high in nutrients, Fruit is much healthier for dessert than cookies or cake--yet many older adults indulge their sweet tooth with sugary treats rather than fresh fruit.
When eating is a problem
Some older adults have trouble getting adequate nutrition because of health problems or financial difficulties. If these are problems that affect you, there are steps you can take to ease them.
If you have trouble chewing, you might not be able to eat fresh fruits and vegetables, or meat. Instead, you might try the following ideas, from the FDA:
- Instead of fresh fruit, try fruit juices or canned fruits such as peaches or pears,
- Instead of raw vegetables, try vegetable juices or cooked and mashed vegetables.
- Instead of a chunk of meat, try ground meat, or protein alternatives such as eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt.
- Instead of sliced bread, try cooked cereals, rice, and bread pudding.
If certain foods give you gas, try these alternatives:
- Low-fat cream soups, pudding, yogurt, and cheese can take the place of milk.
- Green beans, carrots, and potatoes can take the place of broccoli and cabbage.
- Fruit juices and canned fruits can take the place of fresh fruit.
If you can't shop or cook for yourself, you can make other arrangements. Some groceries will deliver food at no charge; others charge a fee. A family member, friend, or church or synagogue group may be able to help with shopping. A senior citizen program in your area may deliver meals. You can use the microwave to cook already-prepared meals. You might consider moving to a place where meals are prepared for you--either with a family member or a senior citizens' center. Eating with other people also is a good way to encourage your appetite; eating alone can be lonely.
If money is a problem, here are some suggestions from the FDA: